May 17, 2022

Flower Drum Song


Henry Koster - 1961
KL Studio Classics BD Region A

For those unfamiliar, Flower Drum Song was the penultimate musical by Rodgers and Hammerstein, first staged in 1958. The story was adapted from the novel by C.Y. Lee. Stage producer Joseph Fields had a hand in crafting the play for Broadway, making it lighter than the novel, further emphasizing the comic aspects with the film's screenplay. The basic story is of an illegal Chinese immigrant, a young woman who expects to be the picture-bride of the very Americanized nightclub owner. He in turn is in love with his star performer who has begun setting her sights on a young college student, son of a wealth Chinatown patriarch. The film is essentially a comedy about cultural differences and degrees of assimilation, and radical for its time with an all Asian and Asian-American cast. Some of the points I bring up have been mentioned by others. What is offered here is hardly the last word on a film that has undergone multiple readings.

Although it would be easy to do, I will not bother enumerating most of the problems I have with Flower Drum Song. Several of those issues are addressed in the supplemental interviews. Those supplements are from the Universal Home Video DVD issued in 2006. The film itself is from a new 2K master which looks great. There are two audio options of 2.0 stereo and 5.1 surround sound. What has stayed in my mind are some of the cultural shifts that have taken place since the time of the film's release. The watercolor paintings by Dong Kingman, seen in the opening credits depicting a ship traveling from Hong Kong to San Francisco, look spectacular.

Nancy Kwan was only 22 years old when she starred as Linda Low, the featured performer in the Celestial Gardens nightclub located in San Francisco's Chinatown. Kwan was not a singer, as was dubbed by B. J. (Betty Jane) Baker. Kwan was a trained dancer, and her energy is obvious from the first time she appears, but especially in the elaborate "Grant Avenue" number. In a more perfect world, Nancy Kwan would have made a film with Elvis that could have been up there with Viva Las Vegas. Kwan's also too brief duet with teenage Patrick Adiarte, "You be the rock, I'll be the roll", hints at what could have been. While Kwan had a relatively solid career, there was little that made use of her dramatic or dancing talents. Five years later, Kwan's co-star, James Shigeta would play Elvis' best friend in Paradise Hawaiian Style.

Patrick Adiarte was seventeen at the time of filming and one of the cast members from the original 1958 Broadway production. In one of the supplements, it is mentioned that his role as the thoroughly Americanized son of a Chinese patriarch was explanded to take advantage of his dancing abilities. Reiko Sato's dancing is showcased in a ballet as part of the song, "Love Look Away". Sato appeared in one more movie, while Adiarte had a short career in supporting roles in film and television.

In one of the supplements, playwright David Henry Kwang talks about how the original play and film both present a tourist's eye view of Chinese-Americans. Kwan attempted to correct some of the aspects of the original play with his revised version of the play that was staged in 2002. One of the steps Kwang took was to bring the play more in keeping with the more serious source novel by C. Y. Lee. The 1957 novel itself was unusual as a best seller about Chinese-Americans written by a Chinese immigrant. While issues of representation and cultural appropriation have not disappeared, in the seventeen years since the interviews were done for the Flower Drum Song, Asian-Americans have been more visible in telling there own stories including those where race is not a factor. While there has been progress, it is primarily in the realm of the independent films. A small news article from 2021 mentions a possible revised film version of Flower Drum Song although the disappointing box office of the new version of West Side Story and In the Height has probably put those plans on hold.

What makes Flower Drum Song still worth watching are the musical numbers. It might be worth noting that the Broadway version appeared a year after West Side Story. Both share the theme of cultural tensions of being the other in the United States. The big difference is that the Chinese-Americans in Flower Drum Song exist in an insular society with limited and cordial interaction with white society, while the Puerto Ricans of West Side Story are reminded by white society and each other of their outsider status. While the song, "America", in West Side Story points to the cultural tensions, "Chop Suey", in Flower Drum Song is a celebration of cultural assimilation, albeit one with some very dated references. Choreographer Hermes Pan uses "Chop Suey" as a starting off point for an extended dance scene that segues from cha-cha to square dance to rock.

The most famous song, "I Enjoy Being a Girl", is staged in a way to take advantage of the wide screen format. Nancy Kwan sings to herself with the reflection from three mirrors. The reflections turn into three differently dressed versions of Ms. Kwan, a celebration of being a fashionista. The dances are all filmed primarily with full shots with the occasional medium shot. The staging of the musical numbers for the camera is similar to the collaborations Fred Astaire did with Hermes Pan that it could well be that Pan had more to do with the direction in those scenes than credited director Henry Koster.

The commentary track with Nancy Kwan and film historian Nick Redman primarily splits between Kwan discussing the making of the film and her own life. There should be note on the blu-ray package to note that the commentary was part of the 2006 DVD. Kwan mentions how James Shigeta and co-star Miyoshi Umeki had known each other as popular singers in Japan prior to their acting careers in Hollywood films. Also pointed out is the appearance of Henry Koster's wife in a mock old movie seen on television. With the discussion of what David Henry Kwang did and did not do with revision of Flower Drum Song, I have to wonder what the late Nick Redman would have made of Tony Kushner's revisions to West Side Story for a contemporary audience.

Of the six Rodgers and Hammerstein musicals to go from Broadway to film, Flower Drum Song is the only one that was not produced by 20th-Century Fox. One of the possible reasons is that Fox had already had their remake of Rodger and Hammerstein's State Fair in development at the same time. In any event, Flower Drum Song was the 11th or 12th most popular film of 1961, based on pre-computer box office tallies. Setting aside aspects of the screenplay that were reflected dated stereotypes at the time of release, the musical numbers remain entertaining and inventive.

May 10, 2022


mamba production still.jpg
Production still with (from left) Albert Rogell, Ralph Forbes, Eleanor Boardman and Jean Hersholt.

Albert Rogell - 1930
Kino Classics BD Regions ABC

Kino opens their blu-ray version of Mamba with a disclaimer noting the racist nature of the film. This probably unnecessary for those most interested in seeing the film as they presumably have a longer view of film history, and history in general. At the same time, the supplements center around the discovery and restoration of what was the most complete print of a "lost" film. After my first pass at viewing Mamba, I wonder if contemporary audiences might have been better served with a commentary track or an essay by someone like Donald Bogle or Jacqueline Stewart to help place the film in perspective with the changes that have taken place in the past ninety-two years since the initial release. There is a bit to unpack here with the unquestioning white supremacy and colonialism of the time.

The story by itself is mind-boggling. The bulk of the film takes place in a German colony in East Africa in 1913. Jean Hersholt plays the part of the area's biggest landowner, boasting of a plantation with 2000 workers. Overweight and slovenly, he literally tries to push his weight around, bossing the German and British soldiers who are there to keep the natives in line. Hersholt more or less buys the aristocratic daughter played by Eleanor Boardman to be his wife. The two get married, but Boardman refuses to consummate the relationship. On board the ship from Germany to Africa, Boardman meets Ralph Forbes, appearing as an officer in charge of the German colony. World War I causes the Germans and British to fight each other, with the natives taking advantage with tribes joining up to rebel against the Germans. The British troops save the overwhelmed Germans because nothing could be worse than Africans in control of their own land.

Those last couple of reels are unintentionally humorous as they play like the like the most cliched Western with African "savages" instead of Native Americans, and a British cavalry complete with bugle charge coming to the rescue. It is also not enough to note that Mamba is a pre-Code film. In the opening few minutes it is suggested that Hersholt not only fathered a child with a native woman, but also has a black mistress. The theme of adultery is also significant here. The restored version is from an Australian print missing three minutes that were censored locally. Dialogue was preserved from a complete set of soundtrack discs. What apparently crossed the red-line for Australian censors was Hersholt's pawing of the uncooperative Boardman on their honeymoon voyage.

Kino Classics has emphasized the historical nature of Mamba. The film is noted as being the first drama to be filmed in the two-strip technicolor process. At a time when before there was an industry standard for sound film, the movie was projected with separate synchronized RCA discs. The film was produced by Tiffany, a poverty row studio that at that time was helmed by director John Stahl. Tiffany Pictures basically put all their eggs in one basket with a budget of $500,000. The film was a hit, but not enough of one to keep the studio from going under a couple years later. The opening shot is riposte to the myth of early talkies being static, with the camera traveling for about two and a half minutes through the port of the German colony. The supplements cover the recovery of the only known print in Australia, the subsequent restoration of Mamba as well as a brief history of Tiffany Pictures.

In spite of directing over one-hundred films, with a career that began as a teenager, there is very little written about Albert Rogell. What can be gleaned from his filmography and the available films is of a journeyman director of B films who continually went from assignment to assignment without distinguishing himself. John Stahl left Tiffany for Universal around the time of the release of Mamba, directing the first versions of Imitation of Life and Magnificent Obsession, among his handful of highly regarded films.

The commentary track is by Ozploitation filmmaker Brian Trenchard-Smith. The more interesting points concern how the film was probably perceived by viewers at the time of release versus reading the film from a contemporary perspective. Even discussing Mamba as a product of its time, one can argue about the presentation of the Africans as savages in need of civilization while at the same time providing temporary employment for a large number of black actors and extras while the United States was feeling the effects of the Great Depression. My only dispute with Trenchard-Smith is in his characterization of the three top billed actors, all very recognizable names at the time of production. Still, Trenchard-Smith should get kudos for his research and insights.

May 06, 2022



Marc Allegret - 1953
Icarus Home Video Region 1 DVD

Julietta is the second of two films by Marc Allegret that has just been released as a DVD from a restored print. Perhaps because the stakes were not as high as filming a literary classic, I found this a better film than Allegret's version of Lady Chatterley's Lover. What is surprising is not just how funny this earlier film is, but that it works so well with the literary pedigree and two stars associated with more serious work. Again, Allegret adapted a novel, in this case by Louise de Vilmorin. The author's most famous novel was the basis for Max Ophul's Earrings of Madame de . . .. The screenplay was by Francoise Giroud, whose started as a script-girl on Alleget's Fanny in 1932, later becoming a journalist as well as briefly France's Minister of Culture. Jean Marais is better known for his more somber roles in films by Jean Cocteau, while Jeanne Moreau's only comparable excursion into comedy would come after stardom was established with Viva Maria!.

If Assistant Director Roger Vadim had his way, Julietta would have been the first time Brigiitte Bardot and Moreau would have been in the same film, though not sharing screen time. Dany Robin, who was a popular star at the time has the title role during a year that Bardot had only begun getting credited supporting parts. Julietta is a young woman, 18 years old, engaged to a wealthy older man, and having second thoughts about her engagement. On the train to Paris with her mother and older sister, she notices a cigarette case left behind by a passenger at a stop in Poitiers. The passenger is a well known local lawyer, Andre. Julietta catches Andre but loses her train. Talking Andre into letting her spend the night at his house, Julietta connives to extend her stay as a way of avoid the impending nuptials. Confusion reigns when Andre's fiancee, Rosie, comes to visit.

There are echoes of the classic screwball comedy at work here with Marais frenetically trying to hide the presence of Robin from Moreau, with physical bits such as completely spilling a tray filled with food and drink. Moreau is the hysteria prone fiancee shrieking at the sight of a spider, unexplained noises, a blown fuse while she is taking a bath, and mistaking Marais for a ghostly apparition when he is seen covered in one of the several bedsheets he is carrying. Moreau's performance is the most interesting to watch because it is both atypical, but also because Moreau's face is so smooth and unlined, as if she has yet to become the fully formed actress who would become more formidable a few years later. Dany Robin is attractive but so easily upstaged by Moreau and Marais. Robin's best moment is in the film's opening scene with her pirouetting on the beach towards the camera. A year after Lady Chatterley's Lover, Brigitte Bardot was now a top billed star in France with four of six films released that year, one directed by Marc Allegret.

May 03, 2022

Lady Chatterley's Lover


L'Amant de lady Chatterley
Marc Allegret - 1955
Icarus Home Video Region 1 DVD

Contemporary viewers of Lady Chatterley's Lover may be wondering what the fuss was about, at least in the United States where it was temporarily banned for allegedly "promoting adultery". The U.S. release occurred in 1959, almost simultaneously with the publication of D. H. Lawrence's novel, itself the subject of banning internationally. At the same time, Marc Allegret is still a relatively unknown director in spite of his prolific filmography for a couple of reasons. The stateside distribution of foreign films has always been inconsistent during Allegret's career with feature films spanning from 1931 through 1970. Allegret's films never were part of the revival arthouse circuit possibly due to the influence of Francois Truffaut and his dismissal of the "cinema de papa". While Children of Paradise and double features of Diabolique and Wages of Fear were easy to see theatrically in the 1970s, films by the peers of Carne and Clouzot remained unknown.

In the case of Lady Chatterley's Lover, I think I can see what Truffaut was criticizing. I can not claim to be knowledgable about Lawrence, and while I did read the novel, that was about thirty-five years ago. But for a film based on a novel that is about emotional and physical love, it is a very stately affair. There is more life in Jack Cardiff's 1960 film of Sons and Lovers. By 1969, the demise of the old production code meant that Ken Russell could more more direct in filming Women in Love. Between the limits of film censorship in 1955 and Allegret's discretion, the only scene depicting sex between Lady Chatterley and Mellors, the gamekeeper, begins with a two-shot of the couple embracing on blanket in a shack, their faces and shoulders visible, followed by a shot of a very tall tree, chopped down in the woods, falling, the symbolism impossible to miss, followed by another of Lady Chatterley and Mellors in the same embrace but with suggested nudity. While D. H. Lawrence used some very clear language regarding sex, most of the reference to sex as filmed by Marc Allegret is mostly avoided, with Danielle Darrieux's erotic potential covered up with large towels and blankets.

Allegret also updates the film to its then contemporary setting, so that references to the past war would be World War II. There is some streamlining of the novel so that most of the film takes place within the confines of the Chatterley estate with even the outdoor scenes feeling claustrophobic. This was one of the last staring roles for Danielle Darrieux before continuing her career in mostly supporting roles through 2010. The British actor Leo Genn appears as Lord Chatterley. Mellors is played by the Italian actor Erno Crisa, whose filmography indicates a career mostly in smaller supporting roles. There is very little written about Marc Allegret in English. The summary of several of his earlier films suggests that there is more of interest in several of earlier films. Allegret also has a reputation for launching the careers of several French stars including Simone Simon and Brigitte Bardot. While this new restoration of Lady Chatterley's Lover> may not improve Allegret's standing in terms of film scholarship, it remains of historical interest, as well as providing a showcase for the talents of its iconic star.

April 26, 2022

Film Noir: The Dark Side of Cinema VI

John Brahm - 1947

johnny stool pigeon.jpg
Johnny Stool Pigeon
William Castle - 1949

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The Raging Tide
George Sherman - 1951
KL Studio Classics BD Region A Three-disc set

The three films are from the studio known at the time as Universal-International. That they are classified as film noir is indicative of how elastic that term has become. There is little of the stylization that is found in the canonical films. Not every film can or has to be a Touch of Evil or Kiss Me Deadly, so as long as there are no unrealistic expectations, there is no reason why one can not enjoy these films as they are.

If you have seen Casablanca, then you have already seen Singapore. I exaggerate, but not by much. The comparisons are part of several reviews of John Brahms's film. The story was by screenwriter Seton I. Miller, whose name might be remembered from several classic Warner Brothers movies from the 1930s and 40s. The main supporting cast includes Roland Culver, Richard Haydn, Thomas Gomez and George Lloyd taking parts that in a Warners' film would have Paul Henreid, Claude Rains, Sydney Greenstreet and Peter Lorre respectively. The leads are played by Fred MacMurray, then at the top of his career as a movie star, and Ava Gardner, newly minted as a star following The Killers from the year before.

MacMurray plays a pearl smuggler returning to Singapore following the end of World War II. He hopes to resume his business and recover a cache of pearls left in a hotel that survived the war. Gardner is the fiancee MacMurray thought had been killed during a Japanese attack, only she got amnesia and is now married to plantation owner Roland Culver. The film was made when Asia was referred to as the Orient. While Singapore is not exactly a Casablanca clone, there is that ending at the airport.

John Brahm is best remembered for such films as Hangover Square and his version of The Lodger. He also directed some of the best episodes of the early 1960s television anthology series, Thriller, with "A Wig for Miss Devore" unnerving me at age 10. There are several nice shots of MacMurray and Gardner mostly in the shadows, their profiles partially illuminated.

Even William Castle was dismissive of Johnny Stool Pigeon, called it "pedestrian". It is actually better than Castle recalls, especially the dialogue free opening scene at a San Francisco pier. Federal agent Howard Duff convinces convict Dan Duryea to help him bust a narcotics ring rather than enjoy the comforts of a long stay at Alcatraz. Shelley Winters, a mobster's girlfriend, tags along, although it is never certain whose side she's on. The three end up at an Arizona dude ranch run by the overly ingratiating John McIntire. When Strangers Marry from 1944 is proof that William Castle could make a stylish film within the restrictions of a Monogram budget. Johnny Stool Pigeon does benefit from some on location photography, plus a fourth billed Tony Curtis as a hired gun. Still credited as Anthony Curtis, this is a silent performance with the actor basically glaring at everyone else. I imagine that early in his career, the suits may not have been sure how to work with or around Curtis' Bronx accent, but they knew he had screen presence.

Many years ago I saw part of a movie on television in which Shelley Winters was being interrogated by a cop in her bedroom. She is asked what she does for a living and responds that she sells hats. As she puts it, and I am paraphrasing here, men give her hats and she sells them back. I never knew the title of that film until I saw The Raging Tide. The cop is played by Stephen McNally, and he is in pursuit of Winter's boyfriend, Richard Conte. On the run in San Francisco, Conte hides out in a fishing boat operated by Charles Bickford with Alex Nicol as his son. Conte discovers he likes the honest work of a fisherman over his previous life of crime although it does not stop him from temporarily recruiting Nicol to do collect money on his behalf. The story is ultimately a parable of redemption following the small fishing boat surviving an ocean storm. Of note is that the screenplay was by Ernest K. Gann from his novel. Gann is most famous for aviation novels that have been filmed including The High and the Mighty and Fate is the Hunter.

Director George Sherman is better known for his many low budget westerns, though he did work on a handful of films in other genres. His career was somewhat circular beginning with several film starring John Wayne at Republic Pictures prior to Stagecoach, with Sherman ending his career directing Wayne in what would be his most commercially successful film, Big Jake.

All three films come with commentary tracks. Lee Gambin and Kat Ellinger offer a casual chat covering the stars and director of Singapore, additionally discussing the film's historical context. Jason Ney's commentary for Johnny Stool Pigeon is a well prepared presentation on the film's location shooting, some biographical information, and placing the film within the context of film noir at the time of production. A highlight is the inclusion of an "interview" with Dan Duryea that was distributed to several radio stations in 1949, with Ney reading the scripted questions. David Del Valle and Miles Hunter share friendly banter on The Raging Tide, primarily covering the primary cast, with a few words on Ernest Gann and cinematographer Russell Metty. Curiously, while they discuss the similarities and differences of film noir with the western, no mention is made of George Sherman's career as mostly a niche director.

All three films have been sourced from 2K restorations and look quite good when the action takes place in the shadows.

April 22, 2022

The Indian Tomb


Das indische Grabmal
Joe May - 1921
Kino Classics BD Region A

I was not prepared for how different the first film version of The Indian Tomb is from Fritz Lang's version. Lang co-wrote the screenplay with then wife and collaborator Thea von Harbou for the 1921 film. Lang's 1959 version bears little resemblance other than having European characters in a fantasy India, and a few shared plot points. Both films have a woman dancing in front of a snake, but it May's film the scene is brief ending with a quick, but fatal snakebite. Lang's film is remembered mostly for its much longer scene with Debra Paget doing the hoochie coochie in front of a very large and very fake cobra. It may also be worth noting that Lang's film was actually the third version, with the second version released in 1938.

So we have British architect Herbert Rowland invited to India by a maharajah, Ayan III. The invitation comes via a yogi, Ramigani, who materializes in Rowland's house. Ramigani is a tall, imposing man, who seems to also be omniscient, outsmarting everyone by disconnecting telephones, stealing letters and causing the wheels of cars to fall off with his powerful mental telepathy. Rowland is convinced to go to India without letting anyone else know. His fiancee, Irene, is concerned enough to uncover enough clues to lead her in pursuit of Rowland in India. It turns out that Ayan might be rich and powerful, with a castle protected by a lake with hungry crocodiles, but he is also very unhappy with his wife, Princess Savitri. The princess has revealed her affection for the adventurer Mac Allen by giving him one very big ring, a gift from Ayan. Rowland questions Ayan's desire to build a tomb for Savitri in advance, causing both he and Irene to remain as house guests with restrictions at the maharajah's castle.

I will refer to The Indian Tomb as one film even though, like the remakes, it was released as two separate features. The film is probably best appreciated on its own terms. As mentioned, this is a fantasy India where part of the plot hinges on half-baked understandings of Hinduism, Buddhism and Yoga. One room that is apparently devoted to religious devotion has what looks like a very large menorah. Much of the German cast is in brown face. Olaf Fonns was 39 years old when he appeared as Herbert Rowland but already looked like somebody's grandfather. Joe May's wife, Mia, was already quite matronly at age 37. For a fiancee who steals her mother's pearls and hires a plane to fly from England to India, Joe May might have been better off casting his 18 year old daughter, the actress Eva, rather than Mama Mia. Bernhard Goetzke, the mysterious yogi, makes enough of an impression that it is no surprise that Fritz Lang cast him in three of his films. Not quite as tall, but almost as lean, is Conrad Veidt as Ayan. The name is from Sanskrit translated as "gift from God". Is it coincidental that it is one letter away from Aryan? The Indian Tomb was made at a time when India was part of German popular culture. Ayan may be the villain, if not as thoroughly villainous as Ramigani, but he is not entirely unsympathetic either.

The sets are impressive in their sheer scale of size. It is like Joe May saw Intolerance and said to himself, "I can do that!". The actors are dwarfed by several of the sets. Unless one is totally jaded from exposure to CGI, there is delight in seeing what were the state of the art special effects of a century ago, mostly seen in the first half of the film.

The blu-ray was sourced from a 2K digital restoration from 2016 which in turn was from a 1994 version assemble primarily from surviving French and Czech prints. The film is also tinted as it was at the time of release. A supplement written and narrated by Scottish film scholars David Cairns and Fiona Watson offers there assessment, plus that of other film scholars, on The Indian Tomb.

April 19, 2022

Rogue Cops and Racketeers: Two Crime Thrillers by Enzo G. Castelari

The Big Racket / Il Grande Racket (1976)

Heroin busters.jpg
The Heroin Busters / La Via della Droga (1977)
Arrow Video BD Region A Two-disc set

This two disc set is composed of Castellari's last two films, part of the Italian genre known as poliziotteschi, but also star Fabio Testi. The genre is generally distinguished by being about cops who often use extra-legal means of foiling criminals. The most cited inspirations are two American films, Dirty Harry, in which the law is upheld by going outside legal constraints, and The French Connection for the visceral pleasure of car chases, especially in urban areas.

There are the obvious linkages of the two films not only with the same star, key crew members, supporting actors, with the second billing of a recognizable English language actor. Beyond that, Castellari's protagonists do not have a private life. They are only seen as working professionals. The criminals that are being pursued are mostly the street level soldiers working on behalf of an organization that itself may be the subsidiary of a respectable front. Even if one is able to identify the higher echelon crime bosses, their death only means a temporary disruption rather than an end to their activity.

In The Big Racket, Testi plays a cop trying to bust a small gang operating a protection racket in Rome, turning vigilante when his methods cause him to be ousted from the police force. In The Heroin Busters, Testi goes undercover to infiltrate a gang of international drug traffickers. The basic stories are topical ripped from the headlines plots. As commercial projects made within modest budgets and genre expectations, what is of interest are the ways Castellari finds ways to make his films stylistically of interest.

The most famous scene in The Big Racket also involves a questionable set-up. Testi follows the gang of youngish hoods to a field that is the rendezvous point with a well dressed gangster, Rudy, clearly higher in the chain of command. Test is noticed, and his car is pushed sideway down the edge of a hill with Testi still inside. Testi is filmed in slow motion close up with the car rolling down sideways, shards of glass flying in the air. Castellari gives away how the shot was done in his supplementary interview. It is an amazing visual moment considering the limited means at his disposal and with a star who was willing to put himself in physical danger. Prior to that scene, Rudy is introduced in a montage of six close-ups done from different angles, with Castellari repeating that moment with Testi seen in four quick consecutive close-ups from different angles, done just before one of the bigger action set pieces.

What is striking about The Heroin Busters is the location work. In an early chase scene, Testi runs by a Roman street with what can only be described as artwork, too good to be dismissed as graffiti, on the wall of an apartment building. Several of the locations are empty. One chase scene was filmed in a subway station that had not yet been opened, with neon colored rings in the tunnel. Another scene was filmed in what appears to be the basic structure of an apartment building that was either in the early stages of construction or possibly abandoned. The final chase is with two small airplanes flying over a highway that had not officially opened. Castellari makes use of framing devices within the camera frame, most notably when Testi looks through a small pipe to scope out a criminal.

Second billed Vincent Gardenia has a small role as an old time petty thief who assists Testi in identifying the organization behind the protection racket in The Big Racket. David Hemmings has a much larger role as an Interpol agent in The Heroin Busters, although it is a shock to see his gray hair and puffy face just eleven years after his star making turn in Blow-Up. Both actors dub their own voices in the English language versions of their respective films. I had to look up Marcella Michelangeli on IMDb to realize I had seen her before in Padre Padrone and Beware of a Holy Whore. Most of her work was in genre films. In The Big Racket, Michelangeli plays the baddest of bad girls, defiant when the guys in the gang wimp out.

As is usual for Arrow, there is an abundance of extras. The enclosed, illustrated booklet has essays by Italian film historian Roberto Curti and British film historian Barry Forshaw. The two casual commentary tracks by Adrian Smith and David Flint are more geared to genre enthusiasts. There are also interviews with Castellari, Testi, supporting actor Massimo Vanni, and editor Gianfranco Amicucci. The Heroin Busters also features an interview with Nicola Longo, the former undercover policeman whose experiences provided some inspiration for the film.

Two small quibbles about The Big Racket - The actress Anna Bellini is referred to by her past married name of Anna Zinnemann. She had already divorced Tim Zinnemann, son of High Noon director Fred Zinnemann, for several years. Whomever did the subtitles misspelled the family name as "Zinnermann", making me wonder how no one noticed this error. Also, editor Amicucci's interview is titled "King of Moviola". For those unfamiliar with how films were edited in the pre-digital era, the Moviola was a machine that ran film through a vertical system, operated by a foot pedal. For whatever reason, Hollywood did not adopt using the flatbed system until the 1970s, even though this was how films were edited in Europe since the mid 1930s. We see a shot of a flatbed editing suite which makes me wonder if moviola was used as a generic term for editing machines. By the way, during my brief time making films, I have used both systems.

Both films have Italian and English language tracks, plus English subtitles. As was usual at the time, both films were shot to be post-dubbed and even in the Italian versions, the voices of some of the local cast are not necessarily their own.